Have you ever walked away from an English lesson saying, “What?! How?! Why does this language have to be so complicated?!”
If you’ve felt like this, you’ve either just walked out of a lesson on phrasal verbs, or it was reported speech. (Or you were in the Arabic class by mistake. Don’t do that again.)
Reported speech is strange, has lots of complicated rules and doesn’t feel very instinctive for most learners.
But even worse, it’s almost completely useless in the real world.
I can spend a whole evening with friends and hear maybe one or two examples of reported speech — in a whole evening.
That’s because we just don’t use it much.
Don’t get me wrong, it has a place in formal, academic and some (but not all) business settings.
When we use reported speech we are being very clear and precise but of course that makes us seem cold and wooden. Like a pencil in the fridge:
But generally speaking, we don’t use it.
What do we use instead?
Well, as usual, we break the rules and when we’re talking about what other people have said, we really create very ungrammatical sentences.
But these alternatives to reported speech are what expert English speakers from around the world use, and they sound completely natural.
They’re also much easier to use.
So even if you don’t want to sound relaxed and a bit ungrammatical, these are still very useful to know so that you can recognise them when you hear them.
Before we go into these, a quick observation:
All of these expressions (except for the last one — kind of) use what we call “direct speech.” That means no changing the tense, no remembering to change “his” to “my” to “your” to whatever.
I love it when the easiest option turns out to be the best one!
Reported Speech Alternative #1 – “He was like …”
This expression is very informal. However, most expert users of English, even well-educated, middle-class English teachers like me will admit to using it.
Why isn’t it taught in English courses?
I guess a lot of course books and language schools are afraid of teaching “uneducated” and informal English.
But this doesn’t make sense for two reasons:
- People who are learning English need to know what people really use. If they don’t learn it, they won’t be prepared to communicate with the world in English.
- It can’t be that “uneducated” if people like me are using it, can it?
Anyway, the formula for this is pretty simple. But first, let’s look at a conversation between Ranjit and Karen.
Karen, despite being a wonderful gorilla, is a terrible influence on Ranjit. That’s because she’s trying to persuade him to commit the terrible crime of stealing a traffic cone.
Because this blog likes to show that crime doesn’t pay (especially the very serious crime of traffic cone theft), Ranjit gets caught by a police officer. (Karen’s run away because she’s actually not a very good friend.)
Ranjit is trying to explain that Karen was pushing her into her crime:
What’s going on here?
OK. Take a look at Ranjit describing the situation to the cop. There are a few interesting things going on here:
Interesting thing #1 – “She’s like …”
This is the main point. Instead of “she said …” Ranjit usually uses the phrase “she’s like …” This makes the story flow much more than “she said …”
How does it work?
It’s quite simple: you can add the direct speech after the phrase “he’s like …”
So when he says, “Hey, you. Don’t touch my giraffe!” you can say, “He was like, ‘Hey, you. Don’t touch my giraffe!’”
Interesting thing #2 – Changing between present and past tense
This is strangely common. When we’re telling a story with a lot of dialogue in it, we can actually shift from the past to the present.
So we go from “he was like …” to “he’s like …”
There are two reasons for this. First of all, it’s easier as “he’s” is easier to say than “he was.”
But more importantly, when you use the present tense to tell a story in the past, it feels more real, and that means that whoever’s listening to you will be more interested.
This is a great technique if you want to persuade people to do something. But that’s a post for another day.
Interesting thing #3 – Using different ways to report what someone said
Ranjit really likes using the phrase “she was like” (or “she’s like”). But did you notice that he doesn’t use it all the time? (He also used the phrase “she said …”)
That’s because if you use the same phrase all the time, it sounds boring and repetitive. Variety makes language more interesting!
So if you’re describing a conversation with a lot of dialogue, be sure to mix up your phrases!
Interesting thing #4 – He doesn’t say exactly what Karen said
This is quite normal. Do you remember a conversation word by word the next day, the next week or even a few minutes later?
In any language, it’s natural just to say the general meaning instead of the exact words. Hey, we’re all human! (Except for Karen, who’s a gorilla. Obviously.)
Reported Speech Alternative #2 – “He went …”
This expression is very similar to “he was like …” It’s very informal, but a lot of people use it because it’s easier and more relaxed.
And there are no complicated rules!
Here’s Adam. Adam’s quite a gullible person. (He believes everyone.) He also has no hair and wants to grow some:
Here’s Shirley. She makes money from tricking people.
One day Shirley meets Adam:
SHIRLEY: Hi Adam. I’ve got these fantastic pills. They’re amazing.
ADAM: Really? What do they do?
SHIRLEY: They make your hair grow back.
ADAM: Wow. Can I have some?
SHIRLEY: Sure. But if you want them to work, you have to take one a day for 6 months.
ADAM: No problem. How much?
SHIRLEY: They cost £5.
SHIRLEY: Per pill.
ADAM: Ummm … Yeah, OK.
Should Adam have trusted Shirley? Probably not.
But he did, and now he looks like this:
What’s going on here?
The interesting things:
So, like in the first example:
- The formula is the same. We just have “he went …” plus the exact words that we’re reporting.
- Changes between present and past tense — Partly due to laziness and partly for effect, we can change between “he went …” and “he goes …” Your English teacher might hate this — but it’s what we do!
- Changing between “he’s like,” “he went” and “he said.” Keep it diverse. Using different ways of doing the same thing makes your English more interesting and natural.
- Sometimes the words aren’t the same. When we remember a conversation, we remember the meaning, not the exact words. If the meaning is the same, it doesn’t really matter if you report different words (“excellent” instead of “fantastic,” for example.)
There is, however, one important difference here:
We can use “he’s like …” to report what someone said in almost any (informal) situation. But we usually use “he went …” to describe a response or a reply.
And I said, “What do they do?” and she went, “They make your hair grow back.”
Reported Speech Alternative #3 – “She said …”
This last one is a bit different for two reasons. Firstly, it’s less informal and secondly, it looks a bit more like reported speech.
As I said at the beginning of this post, we almost never use reported speech — mostly because we like to make things easy and reported speech is just too complex when we want to describe a conversation quickly and easily.
But we do use this expression, which is “half” reported speech.
Let’s finish off today’s post on a lovely romantic note.
Here’s Jo and Emma. And they’re in love:
The problem is most people don’t believe in Jo and Emma’s relationship, and they think that Emma is just using Jo because Jo’s parents are rich. (I mean, check out that bike.)
So when Jo’s family challenge Jo about Emma, Jo tells them what Emma said:
What’s going on here?
Interesting thing #1
Did you notice that although it looks like Jo’s using reported speech, there isn’t any change of tense (“I love you” → “She said she loves me”)? It’s just the same tense that Emma used.
Again, this is for a couple of reasons:
Firstly, it’s easier. What can I say? We’re lazy! But also it makes it more efficient.
Secondly, because Jo’s using the same tenses that Emma used, it’s like we’re hearing Emma’s voice, not Jo’s. It becomes more real and closer to reality. So it can be more convincing.
Interesting thing #2
So that was the grammar. But what about the situation?
Here, we have a slightly different situation. Instead of describing a conversation, Jo’s simply describing what one person said.
So what does this mean?
It means that “she’s like …” and “she went …” are better for conversations with a lot of small lines, but “she said …” is more suitable for long stretches of speech.
But remember that it’s still great to mix your expressions. Variety keeps things interesting.
So next time you’re watching a film, TV show or you’re trying to understand that annoying British client who speaks too fast, keep your eyes (ears) open for one of these phrases.